The PES is controversial (Wang and Fu 2013684; Czembrowski and Kronenberg 2016685; Perry 2015686) for four reasons: (i) to understand and resolve trade-offs between conflicting stakeholder groups (Wam et al. 2016687; Matthies et al., 2015688); (ii) knowledge and technology capacity (Menz et al. 2013689); (iii) difficulties in integrating public employment services into economic and other policy instruments (Ring and Schröter-Schlaack 2011690); Tallis et al. 2008691; Elmqvist et al. 2003692; Albert et al. 2014693); and (iv) top-down climate initiatives, which are still largely carbon-based and offer limited opportunities for decentralized ecological restoration at the local and regional levels (Vijge and Gupta 2014694). An equally important product of participation in practice is social learning (high trust) (Reed et al. 20101453; Dryzek and Pickering 20171454; Gupta 20141455), which learns in and with social groups through interaction (Argyris 19991456), including collaboration and organization that takes place in networks of interdependent stakeholders (Mostert et al. 20071457). Social learning is defined as a change in understanding measured by a change in behaviour and perhaps worldview by individuals and broader social units, communities of practice, and social networks (Reed et al. 20101458; Gupta 20141459).
Social learning is an important factor contributing to long-term climate adaptation, where individuals and organizations go through a multi-stage social process, addressing different issues while raising awareness of climate and land risks and opportunities, exploring policy options and institutionalizing new rights, duties, feedback and learning processes (Tàbara et al. 20101460). It is important to address insecurity (Newig et al. 20101461) and the increasingly uneven geography of food security (Sonnino et al. 20141462). Based on the definition in section 7.1.2, governance situates decision-making and the selection or calibration of policy instruments in the reality of the multitude of actors involved in land and climate interactions. Governance encompasses all processes, structures, rules and traditions that govern; Governance processes can be led by actors such as a government, a market, an organization or a family (Bevir 20111168). Governance processes determine how people in societies make decisions (Patterson et al. 20171169) and include the interactions between formal and informal institutions (section 7.4.1) through which people express their interests, exercise their legal rights, comply with their legal obligations, and communicate their differences (Plummer and Baird, 20131170). Another doubt highlighted by the Brazilian judge concerns the moment when the swimmers reached the athletes` village. Footage from the Daily Mail shows them going through security just before 7am, at least four hours after they reportedly left the party.
In the recordings, Lochte hit Feigen in the head with his Olympic qualification. “We can confirm that there was a flight in which a British Team athlete returned to his accommodation,” a spokesman for the British Olympic team said in a statement. “All members of our delegation, including the person concerned, will be held accountable and will be safe and sound.” There is moderate evidence and strong consensus that a number of risk management programs for farm businesses (which would include crop insurance and income stability programs) increase farm financial performance, reduce risk, and also provide incentives for stewardship practices to improve the environment (Jeffrey et al., 2017911). Taking into account the portfolio of instruments that respond to climate change and the associated risks and the interaction of policy instruments improves the livelihoods of agricultural producers (Hurlbert 2018b912). With respect to climate-related hazards or extremes (Section 7.4.3), policy mix has been shown to be a key determinant of agricultural producers` adaptive capacity. With respect to drought, the combination of policy instruments such as crop insurance, TDM practices, bankruptcy and insolvency, community co-management in water and disaster planning, and water infrastructure programs are effective in responding to drought (Hurlbert 2018b913; Hurlbert and Mussetta 2016914; Hurlbert and Pittman 2014915; Hurlbert and Montana 2015916; Hurlbert 2015a917; Hurlbert and Gupta, 2018918). Similarly, with regard to floods, the combination of policy instruments such as flood mapping, land use planning, restrictions on floodplain construction, business and crop insurance, disaster relief payments, prevention tools such as environmental planning of farms (including soil and water management (Chapter 6)) and projects agricultural infrastructure, as well as recovery from crippling losses caused by flooding, ultimately by bankruptcy, effective in responding to flooding (Hurlbert, 2018a) (see Case Study: Flooding and Flood Safety in Section 7.6.3). Another cardinal principle that flows from sovereignty and is closely linked to the obligation to respect the sovereignty of other States is the obligation of each State not to knowingly allow its territory to be used to cause significant harm to the rights of other States.