Examinations for solicitors and attorneys were introduced in England in 1860, largely as a result of a new royal commission on legal education in 1855.  These early examinations consolidated the modern law school in England and ushered in the formalization of legal education, which continued for the next two hundred years. Women were not allowed in most law schools in the late 1800s and early 1900s. In 1869, the University of Washington School of Law became the first charter law school in America to admit women.  The “first woman to receive a law degree was Ada Kepley of the Union College of Law in Illinois (Northwest)” in 1870.  Some law schools that allowed women before most others were the Buffalo Law School, which “began in 1887. and open to women and immigrant groups”;  University of Iowa, which had been “admitting women as law students” since at least 1869; University of Michigan; and Boston University School of Law, which began admitting women in 1872.  “In 1878, two women successfully sued for admission to the first class of Hastings Law School [University of California],” including Clara S. Foltz.   When the University of California created a second law program in 1894, this time on the Berkeley campus, it was open to women and men on an equal footing. Ellen Spencer Mussey and Emma Gillett founded the Washington Law School for Women and Men (now known as the American University Washington College of Law) in 1898.  Some schools offer a two-year variant of the JD by allowing you to apply your first year of law school to the final year of your bachelor`s degree.
This creates a six-year program – three years are dedicated to your bachelor`s degree program and three years to law school. This is often referred to as a 3+3 program. Do you think legal education will change in the near future? If so, what should be added, deleted or highlighted? Should law courses be shortened or extended to 2 years? In this chapter of history, I intend to document the changes that have occurred in law schools in common law countries. Therefore, the law schools of major common law countries will be discussed, including the United Kingdom, the United States, Canada and Australia. Most of the story will deal with the “melted era” of legal education in the colonial period between the 1800s and 1930s in these countries. During this period, I argue that the modern law school was developed and that a professional vision of law was anchored in the curricula of the leading law schools in each country. Since the first year curriculum is always fixed, most schools do not allow 1L students to choose their own lesson plans and instead give them their schedules when orienting new students. However, several factors can shorten or lengthen this schedule, such as the time it takes to study and pass the Law School Admission Test (LSAT), which is usually a prerequisite for law school entry. In 1878, the American Bar Association was formed and began urging states to limit the number of people allowed to exercise this right by requiring individuals to adequately complete several years in a graduate institution. The founding of the Association of American Law Schools in 1906 then decided that the law school should consist of 3 years of study. One of the central questions of the CLS movement in the 1980s was: “How is it that those who are systematically disadvantaged by the existing legal system can accept the legitimacy of institutions? who perpetuate their subordination?  Kennedy answers this question very simply.
Disadvantaged people accept the existing order because they are taught to do so: through appeals to authority, circular logic, and the prevailing notion that the law is not at all political and does not serve one group over another. In contrast, Kennedy argues that law schools admit that this is not the case, that they are in fact political, and that they propagate a hierarchy of social values through their content and teaching methods. Despite all this progress, “women accounted for only 2.7% of the occupation in 1963. In the academic year 1969/70, only 6.35 per cent of applicants to the Faculty of Law were women.  A dominant attitude was mentioned several times by Hillary Clinton, who recalled that she was accepted to Harvard Law School in 1969, but was rejected by a professor who told her at a student recruitment party, “We don`t need women at Harvard anymore.” (She went to Yale Law School instead.)   However, women`s attendance at law schools improved significantly over the next 10 years. “In 1968, 3,704 of the 62,000 law students in accredited schools were women; In 1979, there were 37,534 women out of 117,279 students in accredited schools,” although they are still represented in greater proportions in less elite law schools. In 2016, the number of women enrolled in CAA-approved law schools reached the majority (50.09%), representing 55,766 of the 111,327 female students.   Reformers who attempted to change the teaching of law after its consolidation (probably between 1890 and 1920) were often ridiculed for attempting to disrupt the status quo.
 The dominant method of judgment produced lawyers who thought correctly, possessed the right skills, and were able to fulfill their role in business. In at least one case, attempts were made to write competing points of view entirely out of history.  As the number of law schools in common law countries exploded, a homogeneous picture of legal education developed, leading to homogeneous technical training without critical thinking or reasoning. Kronman`s prosecutors were idealized and romanticized. To be a statesman-lawyer was to be a “devoted citizen.”  A lawyer who “cares for the common good and is willing to sacrifice his own well-being,” perhaps also his personal interests.  A “leader in public life,” able to practice “prudence and practical wisdom.”  And someone who was neither cold nor harsh, but who practiced a form of “compassion” when making “judgments about the common good” or choosing between two alternatives.  SMITH: As one lawyer said, dropping out of a year of law school is such a radical idea — those who argue for it are those who bear the burden of proof.